Symposium FP
Biological, Biohybrid and Bioinspired Materials: From Electronics and Photonics to Medicine


FP-1:L02  Tuning Heating Efficiency of MnxFe3-xO4 MNPs to Trigger Different Biological Effects in Vitro and in Vivo
g. tommasini1, S. Del Sol-Fernández1, P. Martínez-Vicente1, P. Gomollón-Zueco1, R.M. Fratila1, 2, 3, M.P. Morales5, C. Tortiglione4, M. Moros1, 2, 1Institute of Nanoscience and Materials of Aragon (INMA-CSIC/University of Zaragoza), Zaragoza, Spain; 2Centro de Investigación Biomédica en red en Bioingenieria, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN); Zaragoza, Spain; 3Department of Organic Chemistry, Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain; 4Institute of Applied Sciences and Intelligent Systems (CNR-ISASI), Pozzuoli, Italy; 5Institute of Materials Science in Madrid (ICMM-CSIC), Spain

Responding to an external magnetic field allowing their remote manipulation is one of the most interesting features of the magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), that have been widely used, in the recent years, to develop different biomedical approaches (hyperthermia, drug delivery or cell targeting).
Manganese-iron oxide (MnxFe3-xO4) systems have unique properties, such as high magnetic moment values, excellent chemical stability, and a surface suitable for ligand functionalization and bioconjugation, which make them particularly promising in biomedical applications. In this work, we present a new approach for tuning the composition of a set of MnxFe3-xO4, ranging from 0.07 to 1.4, to trigger the activation of specific physiological processes. The effects of the nanoparticles composition impact on the magnetic properties, significantly improving their magneto-thermal behaviour. The heating performance has been investigated using two different combinations of alternating magnetic fields (AMFs), in water and in glycerol, showing that the heating performance does not change when the samples are dispersed in environments of high viscosity. This is an important requirement for a successful intracellular heating. Moreover, we studied in vitro and in vivo the impact of selected MnxFe3-xO4 nanoparticles with variable Mn2+ content (x = 0.07, 0.4 and 0.6) and thus, different magnetic heating performance, using two biological models: pancreatic tumoral cells (MIA PaCa) and the freshwater invertebrate polyps Hydra vulgaris. In both systems, we first evaluated the nanotoxicology of the different MNPs using the MTT assay for the pancreatic cells and the morphological analysis for H.vulagris. Also, we assessed the MNPs internalization by fluorescence microscopy and ICP spectrometry. In order to understand if we could induce the activation of different physiological processes, we studied the biological effects of internalized MNPs after applying mild magnetic hyperthermia, both triggering apoptosis to promote cancer cells death and to enhance the head regeneration process in Hydra polyps.

FP-1:IL03  Photosynthetic Enzymes for Energy Conversion
R. Ragni, G. Buscemi, D. Vona, A. Agostiano, G.M. Farinola, Chemistry Department, University of Bari Aldo Moro, Bari, Italy; F. Milano, M. Trotta, IPCF CNR, UOS Bari, Bari, Italy

Reaction Centers (RCs) of photosynthetic bacteria are photoenzymes employing solar energy to generate charge separated states with almost unitary conversion efficiency. This efficiency, optimized by Nature in billions of years of evolution, is very attractive in view of designing biohybrid systems for light-responsive bioelectronics.[1] We recently demonstrated that the visible light harvesting ability of the bacterial Rhodobacter sphaeroides RC can be remarkably enhanced by covalent RC functionalization with tailored organic antennas,[2] this leading to hybrid systems that outperform the native protein in photocurrent generation. We also demonstrated that smart supramolecular architectures can be assembled by bioconjugation of multiple enzymes with tailored linkers. Here, the logic behind the design and synthesis of these biohybrids will be discussed, highlighting perspectives of their application in bioelectronics.
[1] F. Milano, A. Punzi, R. Ragni, M. Trotta, G. M. Farinola, Adv. Funct. Mater. 2018, 1805521 [2] S. la Gatta, F. Milano, G. M. Farinola, A. Agostiano, M. Di Donato, A. Lapini, P. Foggi, M. Trotta, R. Ragni, BBA Bioen. 2019, 1860(4), 350

FP-1:IL04  Organic Bioelectronics from a Molecular Design Perspective
C. NIELSEN, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK

The emerging research field of organic bioelectronics has developed rapidly over the last few years and elegant examples of biomedically important applications including for example in-vivo drug delivery and neural interfacing have been demonstrated. The organic electrochemical transistor (OECT), capable of transducing small ionic fluxes into electronic signals in an aqueous environment, is an ideal device to utilise in bioelectronic applications. To date, nearly all OECTs have been fabricated with commercially available PEDOT:PSS, heavily limiting the variability in performance. We have previously shown that tailor-made semiconducting polymers are fully capable of matching the performance of PEDOT:PSS. To capitalise on this discovery and the versatility of the organic chemistry toolbox, further materials development is needed. In my talk I will discuss our recent work in this area covering examples of both molecular and polymeric semiconducting materials and their performance in bioelectronic devices.

FP-1:L05  Surface-specific Polymerization and Deposition of Dopamine: a Novel Mussel-inspired Coating Technology
M.L. ALFIERI, M. d’Ischia, Dept. of Chemical Sciences, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy; M. Massaro, S. Riela, Department of Biological, Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies (STEBICEF), University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy

The mimicry of the underwater mussel adhesion strategy for the development of innovative and versatile dip-coating technologies is exemplified by the introduction of polydopamine (PDA) as a highly adhesive biomaterial for surface functionalization, incorporating the key catechol and amine functionalities of byssal proteins. Despite unabated interest and an ever expanding use for various applications, most of the methods studied to improve or manipulate PDA properties are multistep and time-consuming. In this framework, halloysite nanotubes (HNTs), an aluminosilicate clay, represent a versatile core structure for the design of functional nanosystems of potential technological and biomedical interest. Up to now, relevant publications on HNTs reported the PDA coating on the overall HNTs external surface under basic conditions without polymerization control. Herein, we report the first procedure for site-selective functionalization of HNTs with PDA, under neutral conditions, exploiting the basicity of ZnO nanoparticles anchored on the HNTs external surface. Notably, hyperthermia studies revealed that the nanomaterials induced a local thermic rise under NIR irradiation with good photothermal stability for many cycles of laser on/off operations.
Acknowledgements: PRIN2017-2017YJMPZN

FP-1:IL06  Biomimetic Surfaces as Facilitator for a Clean Environment
H. Hölscher, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Eggenestein-Leopoldshafen, Germany

Many nano- and microstructured surfaces found in nature can serve as an inspiration for im-proving technical applications. Here, I review our recent approaches with high potential for up-scaling. White beetles of the genus Cyphochilus are well-known for their scales producing a nearly per-fect whiteness in a very efficient way with an astonishing low amount of material. Inspired by this biological architecture, we developed a technique allowing for the fabrication of ultra-thin, yet highly scattering, white polymer films and particles. Both approaches can be utilized for var-ious applications ranging from extremely white but ultra-thin coatings to scattering particles as potential replacements for titanium dioxide. Many snakes feature nano-scale fibril structures on their scales which are only some 10 nm high and feature a periodicity of some µm. Although they cannot be observed in the visible range and the surfaces appear smooth, these nano-steps cause significant anisotropic frictional properties which are helpful for the locomotion of snakes. These nano-step structures can be copied to artificial polymeric surfaces which can be utilized for the self-cleaning of photo-voltaic modules.

FP-2:IL01  Designing Biomimetic Electronic Interfaces
F. Santoro, A. MARIANO, Tissue Electronics, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Naples, Italy

The interface between biological cells and non-biological materials has profound influences on cellular activities, chronic tissue responses, and ultimately the success of medical implants and bioelectronic devices. The optimal coupling between cells, i.e. neurons, and materials is mainly based on surface interaction, electrical communication and sensing. In the last years, many efforts have been devoted to the engineering of materials to recapitulate both the environment (i.e. dimensionality, curvature, dinamicity) and the functionalities (i.e. long and short term plasticity) of the neuronal tissue to ensure a better integration of the bioelectronic platform and cells. On the one hand, here we explore how the transition from planar to pseudo-3D nanopatterned inorganic and organic materials have introduced a new strategy of integrating bioelectronic platforms with biological cells under static and dynamic conditions. Although a spontaneous penetration does not occur, adhesion processes are such that a very intimate contact can be achieved. On the other hand, we investigate how organic semiconductors can be exploited for recapitulating electrical neuronal functions such as long term and short term potentiation. In this way, both the topology and the material functionalities can be exploited for achieving in vitro biohybrid platforms for neuronal network interfacing.

FP-2:IL03  Bacterial Photosynthetic Reaction Centers in Optoelectronic Devices
F. MILANO, CNR-ISPA Institute of Sciences of Food Production, Lecce, Italy; M. Trotta, CNR IPCF Institute for Physical and Chemical Processes, Bari, Italy; R. Ragni, D. Vona, G. Buscemi, G.M. Farinola, Chemistry Department, University of Bari Aldo Moro, Bari, Italy

The photosynthetic reaction centers (RCs) convert the light energy into chemical energy under the form of a charge-separated state (CSS) with almost unitary quantum yield. The deep knowledge of their structure and function inspired the development of artificial machineries for energy conversion, thus exploiting the principles of natural systems. The “fully synthetic” approach involves the design and production of sophisticated materials that often require complex chemical routes, which are difficult to be up-scaled for industrial production. On the other hand, natural photosynthetic systems, integrated in biohybrid devices providing a biomimetic environment, are emerging as already optimized starting materials, stable enough to be used in real life applications. The RC isolated from the bacterium R. sphaeroides features CSS with a lifetime of 1–3 s, giving to the system plenty of time for the subsequent chemical and electrochemical reactions to take place. Our research group is involved in the design and modelling of RC-based bio-hybrid devices such as photoelectrochemical cells and transistors for energy conversion and sensing, exploring different electrode materials, protein immobilization techniques, aqueous and unconventional solvents.

FP-2:IL04  Silk Protein for Opto-electronic Skin Devices
SUNGHWAN KIM, Department of Physics & Department of Energy Systems Research, Ajou University, Suwon, South Korea

Here, we report the fabrication and organization for the skin-compatible and biomaterial-based optoelectronic devices. Melanin nanoparticles were synthesized and incorporated in engineered silk hydrogel to build up optoelectronic skin (OE-skin). The device showed conductive and p-type semiconducting properties. Additionally, light could tune the electrical signal. Our device platform would provide a new way for fully biological optics and electronics.

FP-2:IL05  Interfacing Photosynthetic Enzymes with Newly Designed Transparent Electrode Materials
J. KARGUL, Solar Fuels Laboratory, Centre of New Technologies, University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland

It has been estimated that the energy captured in one hour of sunlight that reaches our planet is equivalent to annual global energy production by human population. To efficiently capture the practically inexhaustible solar energy and convert it into high energy density solar fuels provides an attractive ‘green’ alternative to running our present day economies on rapidly depleting fossil fuels, especially in the context of ever growing global energy demand. In this lecture I will overview the recent approaches (including our own research) to construct an operational semi-synthetic ‘artificial leaf’ based on photosystem I macromolecular machine interfaced with various electrode materials for green electricity and fuel generation. The performance of such semi-synthetic devices can be further improved by adding metallic nanoparticles in order to plasmonically enhance not only the light-harvesting functionality but also increase the product output of photoconversion. Such highly interdisciplinary research carries a great potential for generation of viable and sustainable technologies for solar energy conversion into fuel and other carbon-neutral chemicals.

FP-2:IL06  Biological-organic Biohybrid Systems Interfaced with Electrodes
D. Vona1, G. Buscemi1, 2, R. Labarile1, 2, R. Ragni1, F. Milano2, M. Trotta2, 1Dipartimento di Chimica, Università di Bari, Bari, Italy; 2Istituto per i Processi Chimico Fisici, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Bari, Italy

The enormous potential of microbial word in sustain the function of hybrid systems in generating electron from photosynthetic microorganisms and eventually use them in any kind of devices is extremely intriguing and is spurring several researchers in this highly multidisciplinary field. One of the most challenging issues that is presently being tackled by several research groups is the yet not understood interface between cells and electrodes. Possible strategies for interfacing microbial systems with different king of electrodes ecploiting conductive polymers will be presented in the presentation.
a) F. Milano, A. Punzi, R. Ragni, M. Trotta, G. M. Farinola, Adv. Funct. Mater. 2019, 29, 1805521; b) G. M. Farinola, R. Ragni, F. Milano, S. La Gatta, R. R. Tangorra, M. M. Talamo, M. Lo Presti, A. Agostiano, S. R. Cicco, A. Operamolla, O. H. Omar, M. Trotta, Organic Sensors and Bioelectronics Ix 2016, 9944; c) F. Milano, L. Giotta, M. R. Guascito, A. Agostiano, S. Sblendorio, L. Valli, F. M. Perna, L. Cicco, M. Trotta, V. Capriati, ACS Sustainable Chem. Eng. 2017, 5, 7768

FP-2:IL08  Stretchable and Healable Bioelectronic Materials
F. CICOIRA, Polytechnique Montreal, Montreal, Canada

Organic electronics, based on semiconducting and conducting polymers, have been extensively investigated in the past decades and have found commercial applications in lighting panels, smartphone and TV screens using OLEDs (organic light emitting diodes). Many other applications are foreseen to reach the commercial maturity in future in areas such as transistors, sensors and photovoltaics. Organic electronic materials, apart from consumer electronics, are playing a central role in a myriad of novel applications that are becoming ubiquitous in our society, such as artificial muscles, electronic skin, prosthetics, smart textiles, rollable/foldable displays and biomimetics. Progress in these fields comes after decades of intense research and development in materials science and engineering, which have resulted in materials combining properties that are often mutually exclusive. For instance, materials showing high flexibility/stretchability, self-healing electronic/ionic conductivity, enhanced optoelectronic performance are now a reality. Another flourishing field is that of organic bioelectronics, where devices such as conducting polymer electrodes are used for recording and stimulating neural, muscular and nerve activity. In such applications, organic polymers are very attractive.

FP-2:IL09  The Electrochemical Domain of Bacterial Photosynthesis
G. Buscemi1, 2, D. Vona1, P. Stufano3, R. Labarile1, 2, M. Grattieri1, 2, 1Università degli Studi di Bari “Aldo Moro”, Bari, Italy; 2Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche IPCF-CNR, Bari, Italy; 3Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche CNR-NANOTEC, Bari, Italy

Establishing an electron transfer between photosynthetic entities and electrodes enables converting solar energy into electrical energy in biohybrid electrochemical systems. Such systems offer various enthralling possibilities, spanning from power generation to biosensing and bioelectrosynthetic platforms development. A variety of photosynthetic entities can be employed, starting from isolated bacterial photosynthetic apparatus (i.e., photosystem II and I, thylakoid membranes, and the reaction center from purple bacteria) that allow a simplified photoexcited electron transfer process, resulting in relatively high photocurrents. Recently, the pool of biological photosynthetic entities utilized expanded to intact organisms, which provide self-replication and repair features. In this talk, the main aspects of photoexited electron transfer at the biotic/abiotic interface will be introduced, to later present the challenges arising from the use of intact organisms in biohybrid photo-electrochemical systems.[1] Bio-inspired and bio-based approaches for facilitating the extracellular photoexited electron transfer will be discussed together with the application of these systems as photo-biosensors for sunlight-powered monitoring.
1. M. Grattieri et al. Chem. Commun. 2020, 56, 8553

FP-2:IL10  A New in Vivo Model for Bioelectronics
C. TORTIGLIONE, Istituto di Scienze Applicate e Sistemi Intelligenti, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Pozzuoli, Italy

Animal models play crucial roles in bioelectronics to test functionality, biocompatibility and resistance to biodegradation of any novel device. The small freshwater polyp Hydra vulgaris represents a precious resource in this field. The transparency of the simple body plan, the fast development, and the molecular conservation of signal transduction pathways and molecular cascades allow to dissect the phenomena at the device/cell interface, and to identify the mechanisms underlying bioactivity, internalization, and potential toxicity, at whole animal, cell and molecular levels. An overview of recent and on-going results obtained using Hydra as model for bioelectronic will be provided, from behavioural responses induced by photovoltaic nanoparticles and semiconducting nanocrystals, to the co-assembling, in situ, oligothiophene-based fluorescent and conductive microfibers. Finally, the capability to polymerize conjugated oligomers into conductive and electroactive structures seamlessly integrated into the animal tissue will be shown as example of in vivo bio- fabrication of hybrid functional materials and devices.

FP-2:IL11  The Mammalian Eumelanin Pigment as Novel (Bio)Material for Applications in Energy Conversion
A. Pezzella, Department of Physics "Ettore Pancini", University of Naples “Federico II,” Naples, Italy; Institute for Polymers, Composites and Biomaterials (IPCB), CNR, Pozzuoli, Italy; National Interuniversity Consortium of Materials Science and Technology (INSTM), Florence, Italy

Eumelanin is an ubiquitous natural pigment responsible for the pigmentation of many plants and animals and men, whose electrical properties have been studied since the 1960’s. Based on its charge carrier transport properties, chelating properties, biodegradability and intrinsic biocompatibility, eumelanin stands today as a unique source of inspiration for the design and implementation of soft biocompatible multifunctional materials for organic bioelectronics.1
The hydration dependent electrical conductivity of eumelanin, once studied in the frame of amorphous semiconductivity, is now interpreted in the perspective of a mixed ionic-electronic conductivity.2 Eumelanin also exhibits strong affinity toward transition metal ions susceptible of redox transition in biological environments.3
Eumelanin based application in batteries,4 photocatalysis,5 supercapacitors,6 etc., will be addressed here along with representative examples of structure-property function relationships, fundamental tailoring strategies, pigment processing and the balance of ionic-electronic processes eumelanin-based hybrids to orient ongoing efforts toward innovative eumelanin-based technology for energy applications.
1.    Barra, M.; Bonadies, I.; Carfagna, C.; Cassinese, A.; Cimino, F.; Crescenzi, O.; Criscuolo, V.; Marco, D.; Maglione, M. G.; Manini, P.; Migliaccio, L.; Musto, A.; Napolitano, A.; Navarra, A.; Panzella, L.; Parisi, S.; Pezzella, A.; Prontera, C. T.; Tassini, P., Mrs Advances 2016, 1, 3801-3810.
2.    Wunsche, J.; Deng, Y. X.; Kumar, P.; Di Mauro, E.; Josberger, E.; Sayago, J.; Pezzella, A.; Soavi, F.; Cicoira, F.; Rolandi, M.; Santato, C., Chem. Mater. 2015, 27, 436-442.
3.    d'Ischia, M.; Wakamatsu, K.; Napolitano, A.; Briganti, S.; Garcia-Borron, J. C.; Kovacs, D.; Meredith, P.; Pezzella, A.; Picardo, M.; Sarna, T.; Simon, J. D.; Ito, S., Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research 2013, 26, 616-633.
4.    Kim, Y. J.; Khetan, A.; Wu, W.; Chun, S. E.; Viswanathan, V.; Whitacre, J. F.; Bettinger, C. J., Adv. Mater. 2016, 28, 3173-3180.
5.    Migliaccio, L.; Gryszel, M.; Derek, V.; Pezzella, A.; Glowacki, E. D., Materials Horizons 2018, 5, 984-990.
6.    Kumar, P.; Di Mauro, E.; Zhang, S. M.; Pezzella, A.; Soavi, F.; Santato, C.; Cicoira, F., Journal of Materials Chemistry C 2016, 4, 9516-9525.

FP-3:IL01  Measuring Cellular Dynamics with Microlaser-based Sensors
M. Schubert1, L. Woolfson1, I.R.M. Barnard1, A.M. Dorward2, B. Casement1, A. Morton1, G.B. Robertson2, G.B. Miles3, C.S. Tucker4, S.J. Pitt2, M.C. Gather1, 5, 1SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, UK; 2School of Medicine, University of St Andrews, UK; 3School of Psychology & Neuroscience, University of St Andrews, UK; 4The Queen’s Medical Research Institute, University of Edinburgh, UK; 5Centre for NanoBioPhotonics, Dept. für Chemie, University of Cologne, Köln, Germany

We introduce a spectroscopic technique to extract transient contraction profiles of beating heart cells using organic microlasers that are implanted into the cells of interest. Dye-doped polymer spheres represent a simple yet extremely efficient laser architecture. The whispering gallery modes (WGMs) supported by the refractive index contrast between the spheres and their surrounding provide impressive quality factors (Q>10^4). We have recently shown how such lasers can be integrated into live cells and be used to label, tag and track individual cells in large cell populations over extended periods of time (up to a month). In addition, WGMs have a significant evanescent component. By combining careful optical modelling with scanning confocal spectroscopy, we were now able to quantitatively monitor local changes in refractive index in beating heart muscle cells and live zebra fish hearts. We will illustrate how this represents a useful tool for local monitoring of heart contractility that outperforms currently available probes in terms of speed, sensitivity and cell specificity.
[1] M Schubert et al., Nano Lett, 15, 5647 (2015) [2] A Fikouras et al, Nat Commun 9, 4817 (2018) [3] M Schubert et al., Nat Phot 14, 452 (2020)

FP-3:IL02  Photosynthesis Enhancement in Diatom Microalgae by Photoactive Molecules
C. D’Andrea1, 2, G. Leone3, G. De la Cruz Valbuena1, 2, S.R. Cicco3, D. Vona3, E. Altamura3, R. Ragni3, E. Molotokaite2, M. Cecchin4, S. Cazzaniga4, M. Ballottari4, G. Lanzani1, 2, G.M. Farinola3, 1Department of Physics, Politecnico di Milano, Milano, Italy; 2Center for NanoScience and Technology @PoliMi, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Italy; 3Department of Chemistry University of Bary, Italy; 4Department of biotechnology, University of Verona, Italy

Diatom microalgae are important photosynthetic organisms for both their environmental functions (e.g. CO2 fixation and O2 production) and relevant industrial applications as source of biomaterials and biofuels. Hence, it is of great importance for a large-scale competitive production of biomass to improve microalgae photosynthesis efficiency. In this work we provide a proof of concept of a non-genetic approach to increase photosynthesis efficiency of Thalassiosira weissflogii diatoms, and hence their growth and biomass. This is carried out by the introduction of a tailored water soluble photoactive dye (Cy5-NHS) to enhance light harvesting by filling the orange gap that limits the diatom sunlight absorption. In particular, an enhancement of diatom photosynthetic efficiency and cell density up to 49% and 40%, respectively, has been demonstrated. Moreover an increased of oxygen production has been observed in the presence of Cy5. Furthermore time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy gives evidence of Forster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) between Cy5 and chlorophyll. This in vivo method lays the basis for improving light harvesting of diatoms and, in principle to other classes of photosynthetic organisms, representing a new non-genetic route to improve algae production technology.

FP-3:L04  Bioinspired Hydrogel Structures for Responsive Photonics
C. DELANEY1, J. Qian2, L. Bradley2, L. Florea1, 1School of Chemistry & AMBER, the SFI Research Centre for Advanced Materials and BioEngineering Research, Trinity College Dublin, Ireland; 2School of Physics and AMBER, Trinity College Dublin, College Green, Dublin, Ireland

For more than 500 million years, nature has found ways to harvest light and translate colour from natural organisms. While we now understand that such structural colouration in the animal community results from complex combinations of multilayer reflectors (of relatively high refractive index materials), diffraction (from periodic surface features with size  )), and scattering (by non-periodic structures with size > ), synthetic analogues have often remained beyond our reach.[1] Critically, the artificial models which do exist are ultimately hampered by their static nature - a pitfall for which nature offers wonderful untapped solutions. [2] Fabricating dynamic photonic devices would not only serve to create high-resolution colour printing with non-fading properties, but offers a pathway for the generation of active display technologies, phase contrast images, biometric recognition, steganography, and polarisation encryption. Herein, we propose a novel method for producing bio-inspired responsive photonic structures using direct laser writing of soft hydrogel materials.[3]
1. A. R. Parker, J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt., 2000, 2, R15–R28. 2. P. Ball, Sci. Am., 2012, 306, 61–65. 3. C. Delaney et al. J. Mater. Chem. C. 2021, 9, 11674-11678

FP-3:IL08  Hybrid Plasmonic/Photonic Crystals for Optical Detection of Bacterial Contaminants
G.M. Paternò1, L. Moscardi1, 2, S. Donini1, D. Ariodanti3, I. Kriegel4, E. Parisini1, G. Lanzani1, 2, F. Scotognella1, 2, 1Center for Nano Science and Technology@PoliMi, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Milano, Italy; 2Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Milano, Italy; 3Dipartimento di Chimica, Materiali e Ingegneria Chimica "Giulio Natta", Milano, Italy; 4Department of Nanochemistry, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia (IIT), Genova, Italy

Photonic crystals (PhCs) have been largely employed as detection/sensing devices in recent years, since the photonic stop-band can be tuned by applying a number of external stimuli, such as chemical, thermal and mechanical triggers. In this context, we have recently proposed porous 1D photonic structures exhibiting electro-optical tunability, due to the incorporation of optoelectronically-active plasmonic nanoparticles in the photonic structures. Here, we show that a hybrid plasmonic/photonic crystal consisting of a thin layer of bioactive plasmonic material (i.e. silver) deposited on top a 1D PhC can detect one of the most common bacterial contaminant, namely Escherichia coli. We speculate that the change in the plasmon charge density brought about by metal/bacterium interaction results in a variation of the plasmon resonance which, in turns, translates in a shift of the photonic structural color.

FP-3:IL09  Multifunctional Optical Materials in Nature: Responsive Photonic Structures and the Role of Scale Geometry and Disorder 
b. wilts, University of Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria

Controlling light through photonic nanostructures are important for everyday optical components, from spectrometers to data storage. In nature, nanostructured materials produce wavelength-dependent colours that are key for visual communication across animals and act as signals for mates or predators alike. The striking appearance of many animals is not obtained by pigments but rather by nanostructuring dielectric material on the order of a few hundreds of nanometres. By changing the morphology of these nanostructures, incident light can be manipulated in different ways giving rise to the brilliant displays observed in butterflies, beetles, spiders and birds with different visual appearances. Pigmentation is often not negligible and can play important roles in tuning and altering optical properties. Here, I will show the optical properties of different morphologies found across select biological species and show which tricks nature employs to achieve all colours of the rainbow with added functionality that may exceed a pure biological function, but serve as inspiration for bio-inspired materials.

FP-4:IL02  Functional Nanomaterials and their Applications in the Therapy of Cancer and Infectious Diseases
M. Hémadi, France Laboratoire ITODYS, Université de Paris, CNRS-UMR 7086, Paris Cedex, France

Multifunctional nanomaterials are finding applications in nanomedicine[1]. In particular, magnetic and Carbon nanomaterials are extensively used in theranostics especially for imaging and treatment by thermal therapy. Firstly, bioimaging and photothermia(PT) were performed on E. coli, a Gram(-) bacterium, incubated with Carbon Dots(CDs)[2]. Remarkably, by PT, CDs are able to eradicate bacteria in their exponential and stationary phases. Images obtained by 3D super-resolution fluorescence microscopy clearly show the CD distributions in surviving bacteria after mild photothermal treatment. Secondly, In order to optimize the therapeutic efficacy and to enhance the targeting [3] abilities in a cell cancer line, iron oxide nanoclusters were functionalized by different proteins: TRAIL [4], Transferrin[5] and HAS[6). The efficiency was compared with magnetic hyperthermia or PT. An original mechanism was established that implies hotspot generation around the nanoclusters and, therefore, at the cell surface in the vicinity of the targeted-receptors, leading to disruption of the membrane and subsequent cell death[7].

FP-4:L03  Antibacterial Structures Inspired by Cicada Wings
A.M. Bürger, R.W. van Nieuwenhoven, L.L.E. Mears, K. Whitmore, I.C. Gebeshuber, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria; C. Simon, D.C. Marshall, University of Connecticut, USA; P. Kienzl. A. Elbe-Bürger, Medical University of Vienna, Austria

The antibacterial properties of cicada wings originate from pillar-like nanostructures with species dependent heights between approximately 50 nanometers and 300 nanometers and a tip-spacing of about 180 nanometers. These multifunctional nanostructures are also super-hydrophobic and self-cleaning. This study presents investigations of the two New Zealand cicada species Amphipsalta cingulata and Kikihia scutellaris as well as of the US American cicada species Magicicada septendecim with various methods such as Atomic Force Microscopy AFM, Focused Ion Beam Scanning Electron Microscopy FIB-SEM 3D-Tomography and bacterial tests with live/dead staining. The surfaces investigated comprise the cicada wings themselves, negative imprints of the wings made with the molding material polyvinyl siloxane PVS (Coltene President The Original Extra light body, Altstätten, CH) and positive imprints in various resins. The main focus lies in establishing low-cost bioimprinting techniques for the transfer of the antibacterial properties to man-made surfaces such as hospital surfaces, medical instruments, smartphone displays and door handles. This opens new approaches in dealing with multiresistant bacteria.

FP-4:IL04  Mechano-responsive Color-changing Photonic Materials: Scalable Manufacture for Wearables and Medical Textiles
M. Kolle, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA

Color-changing photonic materials are promising candidates for the design of colorimetric sensors and wearable technology, which can for instance be used to quantify the pressure exerted on a patient’s body with compression bandages. While efforts in research groups across the world have resulted in many interesting lab-scale implementations of dynamic photonic materials, the scalable and economically viable production of such materials with high throughput is still a challenge that remains to be addressed. This presentation will be focused on a scalable optical manufacturing approach for the generation of highly stretchable, color-changing photonic sheets on the square-meter scale. The design space that is accessible with this technique with regards to controlling the materials spatio-spectral reflection behavior, its angular scattering characteristics, and its strain-induced color dynamics will be discussed in detail. Potential application scenarios, including medical textiles will be presented.

FP-4:IL05  Nature Inspired Design of Bioactive Antimicrobial Materials
G. Luciani, University of Naples Federico II, Dept. DICMaPI - Dept. Chemical, Materials and Industrial Production Engineering, Naples, Italy

Nature provides valuable inspiration for the design of biofriendly multifunctional materials with relevant biological properties, including potent biocide activity. Integrating the bio-inspired-approach with nanotechnology is powerful strategy for the design of cutting-edge bio-medical devices, starting from bioavailable moieties. Among those, melanin like moieties hold intrinsic biocompatibility, biodegradability and multiple biological functions, including free radicals scavenging as well as biocide activity. This presentation highlights the power of ceramic templated approach in boosting biological properties of melanin like compounds. Notably, biocompatible ceramic nanostructures can act as catalysts and morphological agents during melanin formation, thus mimicking melanosomes role according to a bioinspired approach. This strategy can be applied to melanin like materials from bio-wastes and allows the design of bioactive hybrid nanoparticles with higher antimicrobial activity than the neat moiety. These features can be integrated with potent antioxidant
 activity and bright contrast properties, proving the key role of ceramic nanostructures in tuning bioactivity of hybrid melanin-based systems, opening to further developments towards specifically engineered biomaterials.

FP-4:IL06  Bioelectronics to Study and Regenerate Bone
Y. Fu, F. Santoro, S. Cartmell, D. Widera, R.M. Owens, D. Iandolo, Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Cambridge, UK; F. Santoro, IIT, Naples, Italy; S. Cartmell, University of Manchester, UK; D. Widera, School of Pharmacy, University of Reading, UK; D. Iandolo, INSERM, U1059 Sainbiose, Université Jean Monnet, Mines Saint-Étienne, Université de Lyon, Campus Santé Innovation, Saint-Étienne, France

Due to demographic and lifestyle changes, traumatic injuries have grown to become paramount medical and socio-economic challenges in affluent nations. Despite numerous advances in implant technology, grafts prepared using bone extracted from the patient are still the gold standard. However, the increasing life expectancy calls for innovative and effective approaches to compensate for bone loss. The knowledge of bone piezoelectricity has inspired the use of physical stimulation together with electroactive materials as smart alternatives for bone tissue engineering. The combination of smart substrates, stem cells and physical stimuli to induce stem cell differentiation is therefore a new avenue in the field. Herein, I will report on some of the work done on the development of electroactive materials to be used as scaffolds for stem cell culture and differentiation and for the development of biosensors. Electrical stimulation experiments were run followed by in silico simulations to help us to clarify the interaction of the materials with the applied stimuli. Also, I will report preliminary data on the development of biosensors targeting biomarkers relevant for the field of bone tissue engineering.


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